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Green comet Nishimura survives its superheated slingshot around the sun. Will we get another chance to see it?

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Comet Nishimura, C/2023 P1, has recently burst onto the cosmic scene, sparking the curiosity of skywatchers worldwide. With its trajectory hinting at an intimate rendezvous with the Sun and the possibility of becoming visible to the naked eye, anticipation has been running high for a celestial spectacle that, much like this dazzling portrayal, might leave us awestruck.

Now, folks, let me take you on a journey through the cosmos. Amidst the countless celestial inhabitants, none quite steal the show like the magnificent comets that grace our skies on rare occasions. If you’ve been scrolling through social media lately, you’ve likely stumbled upon headlines heralding the arrival of such a comet in our celestial backyard: C/2023 P1, affectionately known as Nishimura.

Picture this, as I pen these words, comet Nishimura embarks on a remarkable cosmic odyssey—a celestial sojourn that comes but once every 400 years. It was the eagle-eyed Japanese astronomer Hideo Nishimura who first laid eyes on this cosmic wanderer on August 12. Subsequently, astronomers unearthed images dating back to January, helping them chart its course.

Here’s where it gets intriguing, folks. Nishimura is poised to approach the Sun more closely than Mercury’s orbit this month. Given its luminosity at the time of discovery, there’s a glimmer of hope that it might outshine its celestial brethren, gracing us with its brilliance for all to see. But, and here’s the cosmic catch, don’t bet the farm on it being a jaw-dropping spectacle.

Regrettably, Nishimura’s cosmic path will keep it in close proximity to the Sun when viewed from our earthly vantage point. While it’s certainly bright enough to make an appearance in the velvety canvas of a dark sky, at best, it will flirt with the horizon just after sunset, almost vanishing in the radiant glow of the Sun.

Nevertheless, astronomers across the globe are buzzing with excitement. Even a comet that’s somewhat elusive to the naked eye is well worth our cosmic gaze. As the great science writer and astronomer David H. Levy once mused, “Comets are like cats: they have tails, and they do precisely what they want.”

Now, let’s dive into the recipe for a comet’s luminous grandeur. When these celestial nomads venture far from the Sun, they’re essentially cosmic snowballs—a melange of ice, dust, and rock relics from the dawn of our solar system. However, as a comet edges closer to our radiant star, its surface begins to sizzle. The ices near its surface heat up, transitioning into gas and erupting outward, enveloping the comet’s core in a diaphanous shroud of gas and dust known as a “coma.”

And then comes the solar wind, sweeping away this cosmic confetti from the Sun, giving birth to the comet’s iconic tails, which unfailingly point away from our star. The comet we behold is, in fact, sunlight reflecting off the gas and dust within the coma and tails—the comet’s core remains hidden from view. A comet’s luminance, therefore, hinges on three key factors: the nucleus’s size (bigger usually means brighter), its proximity to the Sun, and its proximity to Earth.

Now, what about Nishimura, you ask? Well, it’s quite likely that Nishimura isn’t particularly hefty—otherwise, it would have made its debut on the cosmic stage much earlier. Additionally, it’s not exactly performing a cosmic tango with Earth. However, it’s currently on a trajectory that will bring it tantalizingly close to the Sun, and it’s expected to put on a dazzling show around perihelion—the point of its closest approach to the Sun.

The rub, though, is that even if Nishimura were an enchanting sight, it’s got the misfortune of keeping close company with the Sun as it recedes from us, shrouding itself in the star’s incandescent glare. So, it’s a bit like trying to spot a needle in a cosmic haystack.

Now, for our friends Down Under in Australia, there’s a flicker of hope. Nishimura will soon emerge above the western horizon just after sunset, albeit barely. Your best chance to catch a glimpse of it comes in the week of September 20 to 27 when the comet’s head will bid adieu to the Sun about an hour after it dips below the horizon. The comet will be farthest from the Sun in the evening sky on September 23.

As twilight ushers in the night, Nishimura will hover tantalizingly close to the western horizon, nearly ready to bid the day farewell. But remember, comets are like cats. Some of them, just when you least expect it, decide to break the mold. If Nishimura opts for such a performance, we might just witness something extraordinary in the weeks ahead. If not, well, there’s always next year. And speaking of next year…

In the ever-unpredictable cosmic theater, there’s a chance that another comet could steal the spotlight in 2024. Enter Comet C/2023 A3 (Tsuchinshan-ATLAS), discovered early this year and currently basking in the distant reaches of space, not far from Jupiter’s abode. Over the next year, it will continue its descent towards the Sun, drawing closer until it reaches its rendezvous in late September 2024. Tsuchinshan-ATLAS is showing promise, and if all goes according to plan, it could be a celestial showstopper. But remember, folks, comets are like cats, and they always have a surprise up their cosmic sleeves!

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